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Standard batteries will fail in start stop equipped vehicles
Stop/Start Technologies & Functionality
- Initially it was a manual system now becoming fully automatic, switches off the engine when the vehicle is stationary. The engine is restarted automatically by releasing the brake and depressing the accelerator pedal or clutch pedal dependent on transmission type. Initial Stop/Start systems could be manually switched off, but on next generation vehicles this option is disabled
- Increases the number of engine starts the battery has to deliver as well as supporting all of the electrical loads on the vehicle whilst the engine is stopped and the vehicle charging system is not operating
- Requires new electronic methods of monitoring the battery status including State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH). As the number of Stop/Start cycles required are increased, the vehicle must be able to determine if the engine can restart when the vehicle comes to rest and the engine is switched off
- Initial Stop/Start systems would function if the ambient temperature was below 3°C whereas the latest systems are projected to operate at -10°C. This reduction in system operating temperature increases the demand on the battery to supply minimum voltages to the electronic circuits and control modules on the vehicle when cranking the engine
- Various vehicle manufacturers have found that, on their standard European drive cycles a typical fuel saving of up to 8% can be achieved by the installation of a Stop/Start system. This in current terms of electronics technology means a relatively low cost solution to reduce exhaust emissions
New technologies such as the Enhanced Flooded Battery (EFB) and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) battery have been developed to achieve the new higher duty cycle requirements placed on the battery by particular OEM vehicle manufacturers
Charge Management & Regenerative Braking
- You may not be aware of the installation of this technology as its operation is seamless, unlike Stop/Start which is clearly detectable as the engine stops if all system operating conditions are fulfilled when the vehicle comes to rest.
- When the alternator is running it can typically consume up to 10% of the power produced by the engine. The charge management system effectively switches off the charging system by disconnecting the alternators drive from the engine. This increases the loads placed on the battery but significantly improves the fuel economy of the vehicle.
- The major fuel economy benefits of a charge management system are achieved on longer distance journeys. The use of this system shows that one technology alone is not the solution to every drive cycle but is important as part of an overall package of emission reduction and economy initiatives.
- The life expectations of the battery are greatly increased as it is supporting all of the electrical loads on the vehicle when the charge management system is operating
The introduction of charge management systems has resulted in the development of new battery technologies and designs with increased performance. These include EFB and AGM battery types which have a significantly better cyclic life and improved operation in low states of charge.
Regenerative Braking systems recover the energy normally converted into and lost as heat during vehicle braking. When available the recovered energy is fed back into the charging system to recharge the battery
A conventional technology battery is very inefficient when utilized in in a regenerative braking system. This type of battery is only able to reuse approximately 5 to 15% of the recovered energy due to its relatively high internal resistance. New battery technology developments such as EFB and AGM with reduced internal resistances provide more efficient use of the recovered energy.
Starter/Generator Hybrid Systems
- Starter/generator technology replaces the conventional alternator and starter motor with a combined starter/generator unit installed between the engine and the transmission. The vehicle features both Stop/Start and regenerative braking systems that operate in the same way as for Micro hybrid 1 and 2 vehicles but utilises the starter generator for both start/stop and regenerative braking functions.
- An AGM battery is therefore installed on the vehicle to support the stop/start and regenerative braking systems
Passive Boost Hybrid Electric Systems
- Future new technologies being introduced to the next generation of vehicles include a solution known as Passive boost .Passive Boost is a simpler more cost effective system related to the Kinetic Energy Recovery System KERS recently introduced into the Formula 1 race series.
- Passive boost technology replaces the conventional alternator and starter motor with a combined starter/generator unit installed between the engine and the transmission. The passive boost function reverses the generator polarity to convert the generator into a motor and utilise a high voltage battery to assist with the acceleration of the vehicle. The starter generator is only used to supplement the power produced by the internal combustion engine therefore the vehicle is not capable of full electric drive
- An AGM battery is therefore only installed on the vehicle to support the electrically operated ancillary components only
Full hybrid Vehicle Electrics
- The full hybrid vehicle features a higher power starter generator and an additional clutch between the internal combustion engine and transmission. This allows the decoupling of the engine and starter generator.
- The internal combustion engine features both stop start and regenerative braking functions, however this system only utilises the internal combustion engine when required which allows the vehicle to be driven on electric power only.
- An AGM battery is therefore only installed on the vehicle to support the electrically operated ancillary components only.
These new requirements clearly expect significantly more from the battery and the technology has to be improved to match the further increase in demands.
Review of Battery Requirements
Vehicle technology developments places the battery as the critical component in ensuring that the new ECO initiatives will deliver the increases in fuel economy and reductions in CO2 emissions, good for your pocket and good for the planet.
The current day conventional flooded Lead Acid battery fails to meet the requirements of Stop/Start technology vehicles. It has been necessary to develop new battery technologies to meet the increasing demands of these vehicles. It is therefore essential to replace the OEM specified battery with that of the same or increased technology and specification in the aftermarket.
The installation of a conventional flooded Lead Acid battery to a Stop/Start only vehicle will result in a significantly reduced battery life and increase the likelihood that the battery will go flat in service. The battery will also be unable to recover sufficiently during its residual drive cycles.
The installation of a conventional flooded Lead Acid battery to a vehicle fitted with a charge management and regenerative braking system will also lead to a significant reduction in expected battery life and an even greater likelihood of the battery repeatedly going flat in service. The charge acceptance of the battery is therefore even more critical in order to ensure that the battery can efficiently accept the available current produced by the alternator and the regenerative braking system.
Delkor Battery sales and FREE automotive battery replacement, we test, fit and Install at Highway Auto, North Rockhampton (07) 49 261 303
Have a look at this link: More on batteries
Configeration of a new Start Stop Battery is Critical
Failure to configure the correct specification battery could result in:
- Undercharging or overcharging of the battery resulting in damage which is not covered by the manufacturers warranty
- Loss of the ISS CO2 production control system functionality
- Possible loss of non-critical vehicle system functions
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